Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2382 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? THE IMPACT OF ICT ON RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN AN ORGANISATION CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Over a quarter of a century ago, Ben Russak (1975) noted that traditional models of scholarly communication would be undermined by the photocopy machine and the computer. His prediction has held: the advent of new information technologies that have completely and irrevocably transformed the ways in which materials are created, structured, stored, transmitted, distributed, communicated, and accessed, have similarly transformed the means and modes of scientific communication. During the past decade, global communications have changed dramatically, as a result of the increased use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). ICTs are becoming necessary if countries are to compete on a global scale. Oliver (1999) sees ICT as the science that investigates the properties and behaviour of information, the force governing the flow of information and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability. In the past few years Information Communication Te chnology (ICT) has spread through the whole world in a big way. Computers are finding their way into schools and higher learning institutions, government and the private sector, and other organisations. In many cases, ICT has penetrated work and learning environments unplanned. Many governments and users recognize the potential of ICT and the opportunities it provides, particularly for economic and social development where distances and traditional systems have tended to hamper progress. ICT also presents opportunities for recordkeeping in developing countries. Bamiro and Liverpool (2002 in Akwegwu et al 2011) observe that the computer (ICT) has already invaded and dominated universities in the developed world. It has also been widely acknowledged that ICTs have the potential to play an immediate role in the quest for sustainable and equitable development in Third World countries. In Ghana, over the past few years there have been attempts by governments past and present to improv e GhanaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s information highways because of the realization of the use of ICT as a tool for sustainable development, which is indeed significant. This has led to some improvements in ICT infrastructure though there is still room for further improvement. The private sector has also been very instrumental in developments in this sector, building some form of infrastructure on their own with great success. Records management as a field of work and as a means of ensuring productivity has not been given the necessary attention that it deserves in Ghana until recently when both public and private institutions have started to pay attention to good records management systems and practices. Although International Standard for the management of business records (ISO 15489) emphasizes the need for good records management as an effective way for countries and organizations to fulfil their obligations and meet expectations of their stakeholders, this requirement has suffered a major backlash in Ghana. Records and record keeping constitute the life wire of organizations (Egwunyenga, 2006). It would be very difficult to plan and administer any organization such as the school effectively if records are not kept and managed properly. School records are documents, books, diskettes and files which contain information on what goes on in the school (academic and non-academic activities), school personnel, students as well as other school resources such as instructional materials (Olagboye, 2004). Record keeping and management ought to be taken as a vital responsibility by school authorities because of the indispensable role records play in the effective day-to-day running of the school. However, most school authorities do not have a good culture of record keeping. The few records that are kept are usually not properly stored, thus creating the problem of retrieval to users when needed. The few school authorities that have adopted the electronic record-ke eping practice in the record management system of their institutions have risen above such problems of storage and retrieval, as ICT affords the opportunity to have a quick and easy view of all the records on school activities. Technological advancement had contributed to the effective storage and management of school records. ICT and record management have a strong degree of commonality and many complementary skills. ICT and record management are both concerned with the creation, storage, accessibility and security of digital information. The ultimate aim of both record management and ICT is to support, protect and enable the business of the organisation in a cost-effective manner now and in the future. Information and Communication Technology is the major change perceived in the world of record management. However, where ICT engineers and maintains systems to manage an organisationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s information assets, the focus of record management is on protecting, classi fying and maintaining the authenticity of records, so they remain accessible and function as evidence of the business conducted for as long as they are required to be kept. With Information and Communication Technology, Record Management should be simple as compared with the complexity of traditional record keeping. The use of ICT for school record keeping and management gives an overview of the number of students that registered, accurate information on studentsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ fees payment status, and a comprehensive database of staff, students and instructors with just a click. However in most of the tertiary institutions in Ghana the case is different where almost all their records and record management are done manually and Ho Polytechnic is not an exception. 1.2Problem Statement Problem Statement In the past few years Information Communication Technology (ICT) has spread through the Pacific region in a big way. Computers are finding their way into schools and higher learning institutions, government the private sector, and other organisations. In many cases, ICTÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ has penetrated work and learning environments unplanned (Setareki Tale and Opeta Alefaio, National Archives of Fiji 2005). Example, in the past years, typing was done with typewriters, then there was a transformation to the use of computers, now, not only are computers used to type, but one can programme it to take dictations of notes and type them. However, Ho Polytechnic since its inception is now seeing some level of ICT innovations where a program called topas was introduced to generate studentsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ record. This was causing problem of updating studentsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ records by itself and key in data could not be changed. Lecturers and students are not comfortable with this program, so new programs are being introduced but there are still lapses in the record keeping and management systems which need to be addressed. Retrieving or getting infor mation or records on students, staff and people in polytechnic community is difficult. In the General Office, there are still bulky files which are presumed to be records of the polytechnic and the use of computers; does it mean that filing is done both manually and with computers? Also students Transcripts, attestation and results takes a long time before they get them. Why does it take so long a time? Looking at the population of about a thousand and above, students still queue for several number of days to have their registration done per head on paper. Results of students need to be processed as fast as possible that is why there is the need for the use of ICT to speed up the process of retrieving files when needed. This problem needs to be checked before the institution lose its customers (students) because there are other institutions out there which have a well-planned record management systems and students records are retrieved on time. It looks disturbing that a big orga nization like the Ho Polytechnic appears to have problems with record management in this era of ICT. This research seeks to outline the necessity of the authorities of the institution to migrate at all cost to the use of the ICT and the various benefits which comes along with it, which will go a long way to ease the work of the administration and the student body as a whole. Thereby answering the question when will we ever stop spending days in a queue to register at the beginning of every semester. 1.3 Justification Since the penetration of ICT into the third world countries, there have been several studies on the impact of ICT on record management, education systems and the development of Ghana as a whole. (Adebi,Teye Emmanual, 2012; George Amanortsu et al, 2013; Albert Kwansah et al, 2012). Adebi, 2012, in his study on the assessment of ICT in senior high schools, found out that lack of training, knowledge about computers and experience in the use of computers are the fact ors affecting the use of ICT in classrooms. George et al 2013, conducted a study on the access and usage of ICT in the Polytechnics, reveal that experience of introducing more and different ICTs in classrooms and other educational settings suggest the full realization of the potential educational benefits of ICT. Albert et al, 2012 researched into the use of ICT in front office operation of chain hotels in Ghana. It was found that ICT has positive impact on the front office of chain hotels by reducing queues to the barely negligible. However there has been no extensive study on the impact of ICT on record management in institutions in Ghana. GhanaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s population is increasing and for that matter the increase in student population in tertiary institutions which means more administrative activities making retrieving or getting information or records on students, staff and people in polytechnic community difficult and so the need for better and more stringent way of reco rd keeping and management. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Impact of ICT on Records Management" essay for you Create order 1.4 Research Questions In view of the objectives set for the study, the study is guided by the following questions:- What is the importance of records management in Ho Polytechnic? How and what method will be adopted for ICT to have a positive effect on Record Management? What form of data base management system does Ho Polytechnic utilise? Is Ho Polytechnic system of record keeping automated or manual? What ways would ICT be used to improve records management system. 1.5 Objectives of Study The main objective of the study is to investigate how ICT has contributed to the enhancement of records management in Ho Polytechnic. To determine the importance of Records Management in Ho Polytechnic. To determine the effect of ICT on record Management To find out if Ho Polytechnic has a data base management system. To find out if record system is automated or manual. To determine ways to improve record management systems using ICT 1.6. Significance of the Study This study is expected to provide a basis for comprehensive information on information and communication technology and its impact on record management in institutions in Ghana. The study will established the existing gaps in the adoption of information and communication technology in the record management of Ho polytechnic in the Volta region of Ghana. The result of the study has the potential to contribute immensely to the strategic decision making of the top management of Ho Polytechnic. This will enable them to give much attention to records management using ICT and automate most of their process such as student registrations, fee pay and result among others for effective and efficient management of the institution. The study would also be beneficial to policy decision makers to take concrete decision on how the tertiary system in Ghana should be ran and how to keep records for quick and timely decision making through the use of ICT. Also the result of the study would help individuals especially entrepreneurs, managers, business organizations who are yet to enter into business to consider all the relevance of ICT in records management of an organisation. The study would also serve as a reference material for further investigation by interested researchers who might want to know more about the impact of Information and Communication Technology on records management 1.7 Scope of the Study This study will concentrate on issues bordering on access to and use of ICT in institutions record management. The focus of this study will be on the extent to which access to and use of ICT by management, staffs and department as whole in an institutionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s record management and the impact it has made on the record management. The scope of the study is limited to Ho Polytechnic, as it will be easier for the researchers to reach their subjects. Ideally, it would have been appropriate to include other tertiary institutions in the study in order to be able to compare access and use of ICT in various institutions record management since this is an issue in most tertiary institutions in Ghana. However, the cost involved in such endeavor and the time available for the research has not made this feasible. 1.8Limitation of the Study As it is with any research that will need findings, the research will be limited by variety of factors which include: time, finances and access to information on the topic. Time will be a constraint due to the fact that the period allocated for the research is short to allow adequate collection of information on the study. Finances pay a major role in researches of this kind. This is so because the researches need to buy materials, print documents and travel to the place of data collection. Without finance the study will not portray the true picture it supposes to produce. The initial unwillingness of the school administrators in allowing the researchers to use their institution for the research study and the provision of requested information. The unwillingness of some of the respondents to return the questionnaires is another constraint to this study. It is anticipated that some respondent will not cooperate during research data collection. Others will only tick the responses without thorough reading and understanding of the questions well. Organization of Study The study has been divided into five chapters. Chapter one (1) outlines the introduction of the study, the problem statement, justification objectives, research questions, significance of the study, scope, limitation and organization of the study. Chapter two (2) entails the literature review of the study, sets the theoretical base of the research and to set the current research perspective to show the state of the art and it is the reviewing of secondary data. Chapter three (3) covers the methods of data or information gathering. It includes the definition of the study area, , its population, research design, sample size, the sampling techniques, the mode of data collection and analysis. Chapter four(4) deals with data presentation and analysis. Chapter five (5) addresses summary of the major findings that is the conclusion and recommendation. 1
Friday, May 15, 2020
Task 2 To achieve P2, you will describe the limitations and constraints of marketing. Prepare an information sheet that readers of your article could access online. This information sheet should include: * Legal requirements * Voluntary codes and constraints * Refer to examples you can find (see www.asa.org.uk) This part of the assignment will be assessed as an individual report written about one organisation. Consumer Law Consumer Law is where marketing activities of the business must be within the constraints of the law. In recent years the European Union has strengthened consumer protection law. Businesses must keep up to date with legislation so that their activities are not unlawful Sales of Goods Act 1979 TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Voluntary Codes of Advertising Practice All marketing activities are also monitored by the independent Advertising Standards Agency. This is an industry body that promotes and maintains the British Code of Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing. This is a set of rules and standards that businesses follow when marketing so they can keep within the legal framework. It also ensures to protect customers from misleading claims and it creates an even footing for advertisers. The principles of the code should result in advertisements not being misleading or offensive. If an advertiser breaches the code, the Advertising Standards Agency can insists that it approves any advertising before it is published or broadcasted. They can also refer the advertiser to the Office of Fair Trading or they can even ask TV stations, Radio stations or publishers to remove the advertisement from their broadcasts and publications. Pressure Groups Pressure Groups are an organized group working to influence the behaviors and beliefs of government and/or businesses. There are thousands operating in the UK and they will try to raise the profile of their cause in the media to raise public awareness. This can lead to negative publicity which damages the businesses reputation and its sales. Consumerism Consumerism is a social movement that is giving consumers some powers over businesses. It identifies the right of consumers to be safe, have a choice,Show MoreRelatedUnit 3-Business Studies Level 31729 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRSA Academy BTEC Nationals in Business (Level 3) (September 2010 onwards) Unit 3: Introduction to Marketing |Route: |BTEC Level 3 Certificate Diploma | |Unit code: |Y/502/5411 | |QCF Level 3: Read MoreYamaha Motorcycles Is Innovation the Main Driver for Sustaining Competitive Advantage?21109 Words Ã |Ã 85 Pages4 SUMMARY 5.2.0 PROPOSITION 2 Ã¢â¬â SPEED OF INNOVATION WILL SUSTAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE. 5.2.1 BOREDOM 5.2.2 SCHEDULE OF CHANGE 5.2.3 SUMMARY 5.3.0 PROPOSITION 3 Ã¢â¬â YAMAHA IS INNOVATIVE 5.3.1 YAMAHA IS INNOVATIVE 5.3.2 SUMMARY 6.0 CONCLUSIONS 7.0 LIMITATIONS 7.1.0 EXPECTATIONS 7.1.1 PREFERRED ROUTE 7.1.2 RECOMMENDATIONS A. BIBLIOGRAPHY B APPENDICES I. CONSUMERS INTERVIEW GUIDE II. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK Ã¢â¬â CODE LISTS III. PROJECTION TECHNIQUE IV. INTERVIEW WITH YAMAHA - TRANSCRIPT V. INTERVIEWS WITH CONSUMERSRead MoreThe Design Process And Product Design Specification3562 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesAssignment 1 Ã¢â¬â The Design Process and Product Design Specification In this assessment you will have opportunities to provide evidence against the following criteria. Indicate the page numbers where the evidence can be found. Criteria reference To achieve the criteria the evidence must show that the student is able to: Task no. Page numbers P1 Describe the operation of the design process in an engineering company 1 5 P2 Interpret the requirements of a given customer and produce a product design specificationRead MoreCase study of Dell Essay17119 Words Ã |Ã 69 Pagesthe worlds first volume, the fastest growing computer company. Bruno S Sergi 2012 In this paper, Dell Computer will be the research object. It will use the strategic management, marketing management, human resource management and international business theories and methods to analyze the situation of Dell Computer Marketing, and to point out the major problems. Through internal and external environment analysis, it will be identified the advantages and disadvantages of Dell and its opportunities andRead MoreVarian Solution153645 Words Ã |Ã 615 Pagesreservation price the consumer will demand one apartment, at any price above the reservation price the consumer will demand zero apartments, and exactly at the reservation price the consumer will be indiÃ¯ ¬â¬erent between having zero or one apartment. You should also observe that when demand curves have the Ã¢â¬Å"staircaseÃ¢â¬ shape used here, there will typically be a range of prices where supply equals demand. Thus we will ask for the the highest and lowest price in the range. 1.1 (3) Suppose that we haveRead MoreMarketing Analysis : Branding And Branding Essay10448 Words Ã |Ã 42 Pagesis what Buchholz and WÃ ¶rdemann (2000) describe as the marketing meltdown. Not only is the product universe expanding while the consumer universe is shrinking, products and services also become more and more interchangeable to the point that often it is nearly impossible to make out a selling point based on objective quality factors. The result of this is that price often becomes the decisive factor in purchasing decisions. A further aspect behind the marketing meltdown is the information overload;Read More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words Ã |Ã 1422 Pages Chris Olsen, Jay Devore Acquisitions Editor: Carolyn Crockett Development Editor: Danielle Derbenti Assistant Editor: Beth Gershman Editorial Assistant: Ashley Summers Technology Project Manager: Colin Blake Marketing Manager: Joe Rogove Marketing Assistant: Jennifer Liang Marketing Communications Manager: Jessica Perry Project Manager, Editorial Production: Jennifer Risden Creative Director: Rob Hugel Art Director: Vernon Boes Print Buyer: Karen Hunt Permissions Editor: Isabel Alves ProductionRead MoreComparison Analysis On Pop Up Retail Versus Independent Or Brick And Mortar Store Essay10014 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pagesto finish the thesis. Your guidance, knowledge sharing and also continuous reminder to focus on what really matters had undoubtedly provide me great assistance in finalizing my thesis. I cannot thank you enough for being such an inspiring lecturer, I will always appreciate and feel grateful that you have spent a lot of time in assisting me. My appreciation goes on to all the lecturer of Swiss German University, especially Mrs. Munawaroh, and Mr. Vishnuvardhana, who were always giving thoughtfulRead MoreAccounting 1-4 Chapter100452 Words Ã |Ã 402 Pagesp. 42 study objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1 Describe the primary forms of business organization. 2 Identify the users and uses of accounting information. 3 Explain the three principal types of business activity. 4 Describe the content and purpose of each of the financial statements. 5 Explain the meaning of assets, liabilities, and stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ equity, and state the basic accounting equation. 6 Describe the components that supplement the financial statementsRead MoreCase Study for Management Accounting36918 Words Ã |Ã 148 Pagesfinished goods inventory accounted for only two days of average production of stocked items. Theory of Constraints The theory of constraints emerged in the mid-eighties as a way to better manage constrained resources and hence increase firm profits. Bal Seal had adopted the theory of constraints as both its production philosophy and its product costing methodology in 1997. In the theory of constraints, a single machine, or class of machines, is identified as the bottleneck. The bottleneck machine or
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What are the risks of climate change and global warming? Type in your name EDRD plus your Section number Type in the InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s name February 20, 2015 Abstract One of the largest problems fronting the world today is global warming. Many experts believe that our makings of carbon dioxide and extra greenhouse gases have a heating effect on the troposphere, and this can be very hazardous to human life. This research paper will explore the issue of global warming and propose ways to resolve the issue. Introduction Global climate change and the change will have a significant impact on people, ecosystems, cities and energy on the planet. Temperature global average air temperature is 1.5 degrees already that they were from the beginning of the twentieth century and grew by only about 1 degree during the last 30 years. Many complications have top to global warming. One of the major problems is hovering sea levels. This might lead to submerging of small seaside zones and towns, such as Egypt, the Netherlands and Bangladesh. Some places may even disappear altogether! Another problem caused by global warming and climate change. Many parts of the world are experiencing an increase in hurricanes, floods and other unusual weather. A third issue is the effect of global warming on animals. Fish populations may be affected, while some insects that spread disease may become more frequent. Body Climate change raises the risk of extreme drought events more intense hurricanes,Show MoreRelatedWhat Are The Risks Of Climate Change And Global Warming?1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages What Are The Risks Of Climate Change And Global Warming? One can not disagree with the fact that the Earth s climate is changing and it has genuinely become a global problem for mankind. It goes without saying that the fact of the global climate change is confirmed by scientific observations and is not disputed by most scholars. And yet, apparently, there are ongoing discussions around this topic. Some use the term global warming and make apocalyptic predictions, while others predict the onsetRead MoreWhat Are The Risks Of Climate Change And Global Warming?1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat are the risks of climate change and global warming? Climate change has been a pertinent issue in the media as of the past decade. With much debate on its severity, some simply believe that it is the result of alternating weather patterns. Meanwhile, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change claims that global warming Ã¢â¬Å"has been driven by human activity,Ã¢â¬ continuing on to say that its existence is Ã¢â¬Å"unequivocalÃ¢â¬ (sciencemag). As most scientific research suggests, it is evident that climateRead MoreMariah Miller. Professor Fandel. Eng 105. 5 May 2017. Global1613 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProfessor Fandel ENG 105 5 May 2017 Global Warming Spring is upon us and summer is fast approaching; the weather in Iowa is unpredictable as usual. A few weeks ago, it was unseasonably warm, for the sake of comfort I switched the heat off and the air conditioner on; not your typical April, or is it? Based on scientific research I believe the explanation for the bizarre weather patterns are caused by climate changes that are the result of global warming. What is global warming? It is when the earth s atmosphereRead MoreGlobal Warming Is An Global Issue That The World Is Facing Right Now Essay1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGlobal warming is an unsolvable issue that the world is facing right now. Some causes of global warming are not a natural thing to happen in this environmental conflict. Numbers of scientists, environmentalists, and researchers has been trying to know the other reasons for the sudden changes of the climate over time. Many of these environmental specialists believe that the changes in the global climate are called the Ã¢ â¬Å"global warming.Ã¢â¬ Based on the article of Chaya Dachoh, global warming is a globalRead MoreIllegal Drugs : Source And Solution And It s The Problem Essay1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinternationally consume drugs. Which is the most common used drug in the U.S. What is the most commonly used drug in the U.S. Young people take more drugs than before. High school students drank alcohol and smoked drugs. People want to change. People think drugs are the solution and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the problem. The consequences of drugs are worse than the real problems they had before. You shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t take drugs. Different drugs. They change drugs. Marijuana most used drug. Illegal Drugs Ã¢â" Drugs have been part ofRead MoreThe Warming And Global Warming1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Warming World Around Us The world is warming and we cannot deny it, the longer we deny the larger the problem it will become. Global warming is affecting the world economy, the overall health of the population, and most importantly the environment that surrounds us. Ignoring this problem will not just make it suddenly disappear; the world has to make an effort to stop it while it can still be maintained. Accepting the fact that it is happening is just the first step, the next step is takingRead MoreGlobal Warming Essay1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNovember 2014 Global Warming Essay The idea of global became prevalent when the world began industrializing. As the popularity of cars grew and industrial factories began to spring up the air quality suffered. The problem was not recognized because, aside from a few orange skies, there were no obvious effects. Although in this day and age we can see what global warming is doing to our Earth, there are still those people who believe that humans are too small to make an impact. Global warming is tooRead MoreGlobal Warming And Climate Change1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesattribute this to human-caused climate change. During President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s State of the Union address in 2015, he stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"No challenge poses a greater threat to future generations than climate change,Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Remarks by the PresidentÃ¢â¬ ). Warming temperatures caused by anthropogenic climate change have disastrous consequences that pose a threat to humanity and the environment. Scientists have given numerous warnings that human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change is not only occurring now, butRead MoreGlobal Warming And Climate Change974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesabout global warming, whether it is true or false. Is there evidence to prove that global warming has impacted the climate due to the rise in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature? Climate change is a problem that is worldwide that should be reviewed. The rise in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature has caused some impact to the weather and climate changes to many places worldwide. This rise in temperature has the potential of causing drastic changes to the earth in many ways. It is time to view the global warming concernsRead MoreClimate Change : Global Warming, And The Disappearing Of The Ozone Layer862 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDid you know that with all this talk about global warming, and the disappearing of the ozone layer, the root of the problem is us? Yes, weÃ¢â¬â¢re the cause of all those probl ems. We keep putting something called greenhouse gases into the air. A few greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. While some climate change is natural, humans need to be careful about greenhouse gases because ecosystems are changing, sea levels are rising, and global average temperature increased by more than
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Toyota Kirloskar Motors Jit Essay Toyota Production System at TOYOTA KIRLOSKAR MOTOR PRIVATE LIMITED CONTENTS: 1 2 3 Introduction to Toyota Profile of Toyota Kirloskar motor. Toyota Production System practices in TKM. 4 Overview of TKM Logistics. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Just In Time Kaizen- (Continuous Improvement in logistics) 5 Future Ã¢â¬Å"Supply ChainÃ¢â¬ Direction. TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION Ã¢â¬ ¢ Established in 1937 in Japan Ã¢â¬ ¢ 160 Countries 5400 Dealers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ 26 Countries 46 Plants Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sales of 15. 1 trillion Yen in March 2002 Ã¢â¬ ¢ 247,000 employees worldwide. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Manufacture of all types of Vehicles including Luxury Small Cars. Automakers ranking worldwide based on vehicle sales 9000 8000 No. of Units Sold (1=1000 Units) 2003 First quarter Result Toyota Ã¢â¬â No. 2 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 GM Ford Toyota VW Daimler Chrysler PSA Honda Nissan Renault Fiat Company Toyota is 3rd Largest Auto Maker in the World TKM is the 14th almost the last automobile manufacturer to enter in Indian automobile industry TOYOTA KIRLOSKAR MOTOR PRIVATE LTD Establishment Location Start of Production Production Model Production Capacity Investment No. of Employees : : : : : : : 6th October 1997 Bidadi near Bangalore in Karnataka State Dec 1999 Multi Purpose Vehicle Passenger car 50,000 Units/year US$ 170 Million (Phase I) 2300 PRODUCTION / SALES 50000 40000 Volume 30000 20000 10000 0 Corolla Qualis 21086 28509 2000 2001 2002 1383 28989 Crossed 1Lakh cars in Sept 03 2003 9000 34000 COMPLETE VIEW OF TKM PLANT In-house facilities at TKM Press Shop Weld Shop Paint Shop Assembly Shop Inspection Area ISO 14001 WITHIN THE FIRST YEAR TPS AT TOYOTA KIRLOSKAR MOTORS IMPLEMENTATION OF TPS IN TKM TAKT UP (7. 5Ã¢â¬â¢ 7Ã¢â¬â¢) TAKT UP (9. 25Ã¢â¬â¢ TAKT DOWN START OF TAKT 8Ã¢â¬â¢) (7Ã¢â¬â¢ TAKT UP 8Ã¢â¬â¢) UP (10Ã¢â¬â¢ TAKT UP 8Ã¢â¬â¢) i TAKT UP 7. 5Ã¢â¬â¢) (12Ã¢â¬â¢ 9. 25Ã¢â¬â¢) (8Ã¢â¬â¢ 3000START OF SECOND t (9. 25Ã¢â¬â¢ 8Ã¢â¬â¢) TAKT DOWN s SHIFT TAKT DOWN (8Ã¢â¬â¢ 10Ã¢â¬â¢) 2500 / (8Ã¢â¬â¢ 9. 5) TAKT DOWN TAKT DOWN M (9. 25Ã¢â¬â¢(8Ã¢â¬â¢ 12Ã¢â¬â¢) 9. 25Ã¢â¬â¢) o 3500 n U VEHICLE QUALITY TREND 2000 n t 1500 h Just In Time 70. 00% 68. 00% Standardized Work GLOBAL TOYOTA LEVEL REFORM LEVEL IMPROVEMENT TKM 0 AS ON DATE MAINTENANCE TIME M-I-R START OF VOLUME PRODUCTION 1000 500 0 Dec- Jan99 00 Feb00 Mar- A p r May- Jun00 00 00 00 Jul- Aug- Sep00 00 00 Oct- Nov- Dec- Jan00 00 00 01 Feb01 Mar- A p r May- Jun01 01 01 01 Jul- Aug- Sep01 01 01 Oct- Nov- Dec01 01 01 Heijunka This is the average yield ratio of all the suppliers I. e. STTI, Visual Control Board Built in Quality GLOBAL YIELD RATIO COMPARISON This data excludes 15. 474 kg/veh of material saved by sending offals to supplierpartslikeNTTF,STANZEN QUALIS BASIC YEILD RATIO 66. 00% 64. 00% 62. 00% TPS 133W133W 797T 2 1 4 0 N 0 4 351T 143N 4 3 9 3 T 0 T 0 5 231T 0W 325N 316T 0W 3 T 0 T 7 6 4 9 415T4 0 0 T 0 395T 0W 2 186N 465N 4 153T 391T 9 0 4 T 6 1 5 0 T 5 0 T 7 8 652T 651T 6 7 0 1 T N 3 0 525T 828T 191N0 0 2 T T 9 133W971T 6 1 5 N 0 0 0 9 8 5 7 541T 8 T T 1 0 N 1 T 6 5 2 0 4 5 0 T 0 0 8 9 T T 5 0 8 477T 8 N 8 9 T 0 T 7 185T 7 277N 781T 0 T 8 0 T 60 3. 42%06 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 1. 6%00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 1. 48% 00 00 00 00 0% . 5% 0% 0% 5% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0% 0% 0% 0% . . . . 61% 61%90 67% 69% 64%80 64% 62%80 68. 00%69%70 66% 62% 62% 68%60 65%67 61% 00%68% 65%50 63% 67%40 68% 68% 68%40 66% 62% 62%46 61% 61% 67%39 65% 61% 00%68% 68%20 66% 65% 65%20 60. 70%62. 00%65% 86%57% 40 40 62% 90 80 80 68% 80 80 61% . . . . . . . . . 79 69% 75 77 70 40 65% 60 62% 60 66. 50 50 64% 50 30 69% 40 40 40 67% 40 40 40 61% 40 40 30 65% 20 30 63. 20 20 66% 20 27 20 65% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 60. 90 . . MODELS 60. 00% 58. 00% M OE ETYIDSNU0 I P VMNI E A AG R NL O 1 DTCLETDUNLEF FUL AAOLCEDRGI OO AI I N- F Q S Challenge Team Work Genchi Genbutsu Jidoka Kaizen OVERVIEW OF LOGISTIC OPERATIONS TKMÃ¢â¬â¢S Logistics concept Ã¢â¬ ¢ Just in time supply Ã¢â¬ ¢ Small lot high frequency delivery Ã¢â¬ ¢ Palletised cargo Ã¢â¬ ¢ Standardized packaging TKM SUPPLY CHAIN CBU LOGISTIC In 1993 worldwide illegal copying of domestic and EssayQTY/BOX 10 PACKING CODE : 55581- 0B010- 00 PB10123 516 SEQ NO 1 DOCK 01 PARTS READY FOR DESPATCH AT SUPPLIER SIDE (BANGALORE SUPPLIER CASE OPERATING WITHOUT CROSS DOCK) LOADING / UNLOADING USING FORK LIFT LABELS FACING OUTSIDE PARTS PALLETISED Parts stacking at PC Zone ready for in-house logistics: Ã¢â¬ ¢Parts are stored at PC Zone at predefined locations Line wise or process wise. TKM Inventory Status 9 8 7 6 Stock in Days 5 4 3 2 1 0 Conventional System Kanban System -1~ 16 delivery / day Truck status control by wireless Ã¢â¬â Time control Safety Stock Avg 6 Hrs (0. 3 days) Safety Stock Avg 4 Hrs (0. 5 days ) Frequency increase with Mix logistics of TKM Suppliers Avg 2 Hrs TKM Current ( Y 2003 ) TMC Inventory of Bangalore supplier ( No Cross dock operations) JUST IN TIME JUMBIKI SYSTEM ( Sequential Procurement ) JUST IN TIME Jumbiki System Ã¢â¬ ¢ System for total elimination of Inventory. Ã¢â¬ ¢ System to supply Part s directly from supplier to Assembly line according to sequence of production. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Suitable for bulky Parts with more variants supplied by nearby supplier e. g- Seats, Door Trims, Carpets (Araco) CENTRAL CONTROL ROOM (CCR) JUMBIKI SYSTEM Line In Based on Production Leveling Assembly ASSEMBLY LINE Information to CCR Fax to Supplier Receiving and Supply to Line Preparation at Supplier Transport to TKM Pre defined Time Scale based on tact time JUMBIKI SYSTEM CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM Model A Model B Model C Assembly Line JUMBIKI Model A Model B Model C Assembly Line For Model A For Model B For Model C A1 A1 A1 B1 B1 B1 C1 C1 C1 A1 B1 A2 A2 A2 B2 B2 B2 C2 C2 C2 TPS A2 B2 A3 A3 A3 B3 B3 B3 C3 C3 C3 A3 B3 Stock of each set Seats received from supplier in sequence of Production Plan JUMBIKI PARTS RECEIVED JUMBIKI SEAT AT LINE SIDE JUST IN TIME IN-HOUSE LOGISTICS JUST IN TIME INHOUSE LOGISTICS (Chorukyu System) WELDING SHOP CONVENTION SYSTEM TKM SYSTEM Manufacturing Manufacturing TPS A1 A5 A2 A6 A3 A7 A4 A8 A1 A5 A2 A6 A3 A7 A4 A8 INHOUSE LOGISTICS (SMALL LOT SUPPLY) INHOUSE LOGISTICS Ã¢â¬â ASSEMBLY SHOP SEQUENTIAL SUPPLY SYSTEM INHOUSE LOGISTICS Ã¢â¬â ASSEMBLY SHOP SEQUENTIAL SUPPLY SYSTEM SUPER FLEXIBLE ASSEMBLY LINE TKM IS CHALLENGING NEW CONCEPT OF SUPER FLEXIBLE LINE THAT IS MIXED PRODUCTION OF MPV (frame model) AND PASSENGER CAR (monocock model) ON SINGLE PRODUCTION LINE, BY QUICK LAUNCHING OF NEXT MODEL ON THE EXISTING PRODUCTION LINE. KAIZEN (CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT) Kaizen based on practice of manufacturing Shooter system to maintain perfect FIFO Before After Ã¢â¬ ¢FIFO not followed Ã¢â¬ ¢Mikara not established Ã¢â¬ ¢Unsafe movement of F/L Ã¢â¬ ¢FIFO achieved Ã¢â¬ ¢Mikara established Ã¢â¬ ¢ F/L movement standardized Kaizen based on practice of manufacturing Pallet, Dolly, Flow rack to reduce handling Before After Ã¢â¬ ¢Double handling of Parts Ã¢â¬ ¢Generates waiting time Ã¢â¬ ¢Fatigue while parts picking Ã¢â¬ ¢Direct supply of parts Ã¢â¬ ¢zero waiting time Ã¢â¬ ¢Workability improved Ã¢â¬ ¢Space reduced (210 Sq. mt) Kaizen based on practice of manufacturing Combined Logistics Kaizen based on practice of manufacturing Collapsible Returnable packing The space saved by this kind of packing is used to transport service parts to dealers on the return journey Kaizen based on practice of manufacturing Kaizen in packing areas 1 Plastic Caps of hose flexible eliminated 2 Achieved 99% returnable packaging FUTURE DIRECTION E Kanban SERVICE SERVICE PROVIDE PROVIDE R R Supplier operations SUPPLIER S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S8 S9 CROSS CROSS DOCK DOCK S1 0 S1 1 S1 2 Download Kanban data TKM in-house operations TKM P In-house Bar Coded Kanban e Kanban information to Suppliers/ Cross Dock Kanban Room Store Cards Insert cards Store Parts Cross Dock operations CROSS DOCK S1 S2 S 3 S 10 S4 S5 W T A PC Z O N E S 1 S 8 S 2 S 9 S 3 S 1 0 S 4 S 1 1 S 5 S 1 2 S8 S9 S1 1 S1 2 Download Kanban data Receive Material 1st Step Mixed Logistics Mixed Logistics Concept Increase frequency Reduce lot size Purpose: 1) Share logistics between TKM Supplier. 2) Reduce lot, increase delivery frequency and finally reduce inventory. 3) Reduce transportation cost. 4) Mutual development and benefit between TKM supplier. Example Mixed Logistics Image TKM TKAP Mixed Logistics Closing word We live in an age of constant change Ã¢â¬ËTodays perfection is tomorrows mediocrityÃ¢â¬â¢ We need to realise improve THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
Monday, April 13, 2020
Introduction In marketing their products and services, firms in different economic sectors are faced with a challenge emanating from the business environment. In order to deal with these challenges, organizations have to be effective in their marketing communication.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Public Relations Campaign Case study specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Moutinho and Chien (2008, p.179), incorporation of integrated marketing communication is one of the ways that firms can achieve this. There are diverse marketing communication techniques that firms can consider. One such technique entails using public relations. Egan (2008, p.247), defines public relations as the process through which a firm develops the image of its products and services. Alternatively, public relations can be defined as the process through which a firm develops a strong relationship with the public. In an effo rt to understand public relations, this paper illustrates case studies of firms that incorporated public relations in their market communication effort. Case Studies Problem and situations Over the years it has been in operation, Procter Gamble Company has managed to acquire a substantial market share with regard to consumer goods. One of the products that the firm produces is Dawn Dishwashing Liquid. Upon its introduction into the market, Dawn gained a substantial recognition and reputation within the market as being an effective detergent in the removal of grease. However, the company faced a challenge from the competitors who were luring customers. DawnÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors were imitating the value that the firm offers to its customersÃ¢â¬â¢ by offering dishwashing detergents in larger bottles and at a lower price. This had adverse effects on Dawn which lost a proportion of its market value (Business Consulting Buzz, 2009, para. 3). Similarly, Johnson Johnson has been effectiv e in the provision of consumer goods around the world. The firm is committed at developing new products in order to meet the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s demands. The firm deals with diverse product categories such as adhesive bandages.Advertising Looking for research paper on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An example of adhesive bandage that the firm supplies to the market is the Band-Aid bandage. During the 20th century, Band-Aid became widely recognized amongst a large number of households. However, the firm experienced a challenge emanating from an increment in the intensity of competition. Investors ventured the market with the objective of exploiting the presented market potential. To exploit the market opportunity, competitors developed cheaper generic bandages similar to Band-Aid. As a result, Band-Aid lost a significant proportion of its market value. Solutions In an effort to improve the public image of their products, Proctor Gamble and Johnson Johnson integrated public relations. Proctor Gamble contracted Marina Maher Communications (MMC) to conduct a public relations campaign on its behalf. The objective of the public relations campaign was to communicate the value of Dawn to the customers as being a strong dishwasher. The message of the public relations campaign was that one 25oz bottle of Dawn dishwasher could clean more than 10,000 dishes. For the campaign to be effective, the firm considered it necessary to incorporate an effective slogan which is Ã¢â¬ËDawn Goes The DistanceÃ¢â¬â¢. Additionally, the firm considered it vital to integrate a strong visual which would communicate the message of power and value. To achieve this, the firm contracted Robbie Knievel of the MMC. He was well known as a daredevil with regard to motorcycling being the son of the famous cyclist Evel Knievel. Robbie Knievel was to jump over 10,000 dishes which were then to be washed with only one 25 oz bottle of Dawn. The show was witnessed by over 1625 spectators. This public relations campaign was very successful. The story was carried in different media such as the radio and the print media. Within a period of one week, the campaign had appealed more than 67million consumers.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Public Relations Campaign Case study specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, Johnson and Johnson contracted a public relations company known as Ogilvy Public Relations2 to undertake a public relations campaign on its behalf. Ogilvy hired Emma Roberts a renowned Nickelodeon Star to endorse Band-Aid bandage. Emma Roberts conducted a comprehensive campaign on different mediums. For example, she conducted a campaign on stickwitawards.com by giving children an opportunity to win a trip to Nickelodeon studios located in Hollywood. The campaign was very successful as evidenced by the 65 million impressions on Band-Aid it developed over the media. The public relations campaign contributed towards Band-Aid regaining its market. Additionally, the campaign contributed towards development of a stick-it-with attitude amongst parents and their kids. Conclusion Public relations campaign is a critical element that firms should consider in their effort to deal with marketing challenges. In their marketing communication, it is paramount for firms to integrate public relations campaign. From the case studies, the two firms effectively integrated public relations campaign. By contracting celebrities to endorse their products, both firms were able to improve the public image of their products. This led to the firms re-establishing their competitive advantage within their respective markets. Recommendations Prior to conducting a public relations campaigns organizations should consider the following. Developing a comprehensive understanding of the objective of the campaign. This will aid in developing an effective public relations campaign. Organizations should also formulate the most effective public relations campaign. Reference List Business Consulting Buzz. (2009). The public relations campaign; two case studies. Web. Egan, J. (2008). Marketing communications. London: Thomson.Advertising Looking for research paper on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moutinho, L. Chien, C. (2008). Problems in marketing. Los Angeles: Sage. This research paper on Public Relations Campaign Case study was written and submitted by user Ayana Mcpherson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Personality types The enduring characteristics of an individual's behavior, attitude, and feelings in everyday social situations make up personality. There are many influences on an individual's personality, including culture, genetics, and early family life (as an infant or young child). Certain studies have shown that people with certain personality characteristics are more suitable for specific occupations or special activities. Personality studies can also reveal the relationship between specific types of personalities and the incidence of disease, divorce, and stress-related problems. There are many different theories concerning the nature and development of personality and the causes of personality changes. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates believed that people behave differently because they have a predominance of one type of bodily fluid, or humor. According to this theory, people with calm or passive personalities have one dominant humor, while impulsive and temperamental people have a different dominant humor. In the 20th century, other classification schemes were advanced. The German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer thought that personality was determined by the person's body typesuch as plump, lean, or athletic. He suggested that short persons were more likely to be social, friendly, and lively. Both of these theories remain unproven. Major advances have been made through behavioral genetics, the field concerned with the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual behavior. One approach is to study the personalities of identical (monozygotic) twins who have been separated since birth. Such individuals have the same genetic makeup but differ in the environments in which they are reared. In a related method of study, the personalities of individuals who are adopted from birth are compared to the personalities of their adoptive and biological parents. ... Free Essays on Personality Types Free Essays on Personality Types Personality types The enduring characteristics of an individual's behavior, attitude, and feelings in everyday social situations make up personality. There are many influences on an individual's personality, including culture, genetics, and early family life (as an infant or young child). Certain studies have shown that people with certain personality characteristics are more suitable for specific occupations or special activities. Personality studies can also reveal the relationship between specific types of personalities and the incidence of disease, divorce, and stress-related problems. There are many different theories concerning the nature and development of personality and the causes of personality changes. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates believed that people behave differently because they have a predominance of one type of bodily fluid, or humor. According to this theory, people with calm or passive personalities have one dominant humor, while impulsive and temperamental people have a different dominant humor. In the 20th century, other classification schemes were advanced. The German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer thought that personality was determined by the person's body typesuch as plump, lean, or athletic. He suggested that short persons were more likely to be social, friendly, and lively. Both of these theories remain unproven. Major advances have been made through behavioral genetics, the field concerned with the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual behavior. One approach is to study the personalities of identical (monozygotic) twins who have been separated since birth. Such individuals have the same genetic makeup but differ in the environments in which they are reared. In a related method of study, the personalities of individuals who are adopted from birth are compared to the personalities of their adoptive and biological parents. ...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Zara - Case Study Example ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s success has also been attributed to the production of new designs and strong marketing strategies that encourage customers to visit their stores again (Pahl & Mohring, 2009). The use of these strategies has played a huge role in acquiring a larger market; hence, the bigger profit margins. Zara has also acquired some approaches that enhance growth in sales. Unlike most firms in the fashion industry, Zara has been applying the strategy of outsourcing by contracting external manufacturing firms. The outsourcing strategy is an advantage because it avoids the manufacturing costs such as labor. Other firms in the fashion industry include H&M and GAP. The disruptive business The disruptive business model has been used Zara to determine how different the business operates from other businesses in the same industry such as GAP. This determines whether the business achieves its long term efforts to increase their revenue and existence in a competitive market. The disruptive busin ess model mostly involves producing, redesigning and renovating products of services that are provided by the business so as to have unique products and services from firms in the same industry.6). ... Most of the company management teams avoid embracing change because they fear that the new approach may never work, or they may affect the overall performance of the company (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010). This factor causes most of the companies not to implement the disruptive approach of management whereas; disruptive approach of management has become the cause of the success of various companies. Modern companies that need to thrive in the market should focus on renovating their products and investing in newer innovative brands as well as their services. Unlike GAP Zara has been able to produce the latest fashion designs because of their consideration to customer specifications while producing new designs and renovating the existing ones. Failure to invest in new and renovated brands leads the company to risk management efforts. Some of the factors to consider while incorporating the disruptive business models include; when new products were last produced, last changes made in the company operations, the last time to enter a new market and whether the company renovated their products among other factors. For a company to grow in revenue and profit margin, it should invest in change and renovations (Jones, 2006). Over the recent past, the apparel industry has been affected by economic pressures due to low costs of manufacturing. This has caused most companies in western countries to seek for new strategies to develop new products and renovate the existing brands. These companies seek for new plans of operation for survival in the highly competitive market and grow in terms of sales and profit margins. This method however, is challenging because the